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PLOS Genetics, September 2013, Volume 9, Issue 9

Deep Resequencing of GWAS Loci Identifies Rare Variants in CARD9, IL23R and RNF186 That Are Associated with Ulcerative Colitis

Mélissa Beaudoin, Philippe Goyette, Gabrielle Boucher, Ken Sin Lo, Manuel A. Rivas, Christine Stevens, Azadeh Alikashani, Martin Ladouceur, David Ellinghaus, Leif Törkvist, Gautam Goel, Caroline Lagace, Vito Annese, Alain Bitton, Jakob Begun, Steve R. Brant, Francesca Bresso, Judy H. Cho, Richard H. Duerr, Jonas Halfvarson, Dermot P. B. McGovern, Graham Radford-Smith, Stefan Schreiber, Philip L. Schumm, Yashoda Sharma, Mark S. Silverberg, Rinse K. Weersma, Quebec IBD Genetics Consortium, NIDDK IBD Genetics Consortium, International IBD Genetics Consortium, Mauro D'Amato, Severine Vermeire, Andre Franke, Guillaume Lettre, Ramnik J. Xavier, Mark J. Daly, John D. Rioux


Genome-wide association studies and follow-up meta-analyses in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have recently identified 163 disease-associated loci that meet genome-wide significance for these two inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). These discoveries have already had a tremendous impact on our understanding of the genetic architecture of these diseases and have directed functional studies that have revealed some of the biological functions that are important to IBD (e.g. autophagy). Nonetheless, these loci can only explain a small proportion of disease variance (,14% in CD and 7.5% in UC), suggesting that not only are additional loci to be found but that the known loci may contain high effect rare risk variants that have gone undetected by GWAS. To test this, we have used a targeted sequencing approach in 200 UC cases and 150 healthy controls (HC), all of French Canadian descent, to study 55 genes in regions associated with UC. We performed follow-up genotyping of 42 rare non-synonymous variants in independent case-control cohorts (totaling 14,435 UC cases and 20,204 HC). 
Our results confirmed significant association to rare non-synonymous coding variants in both IL23R and CARD9, previously identified from sequencing of CD loci, as well as identified a novel association in RNF186. With the exception of CARD9 (OR = 0.39), the rare non-synonymous variants identified were of moderate effect (OR = 1.49 for RNF186 and OR = 0.79 for IL23R). RNF186 encodes a protein with a RING domain having predicted E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity and two transmembrane domains. Importantly, the disease-coding variant is located in the ubiquitin ligase domain. Finally, our results suggest that rare variants in genes identified by genome-wide association in UC are unlikely to contribute significantly to the overall variance for the disease. Rather, these are expected to help focus functional studies of the corresponding disease loci.


Legend:       Coordinating PI     Participants

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Karen Van Hoeve
- - x x x x
Leila Amininejad x x x
Saskia Appelmans
Thomas Billiet
Patrick Bontems
Isabelle Bueres
Katrien Bulté
Guillaume Burnet
Peter Burvenich
Julie Busschaert
Philippe Caenepeel
Olivier Cajot
Christophe Claessens x
Jean-Charles Coche
Jean-Louis Coenegrachts
Arnaud Colard x
Filip Couturier
Lara Crapé
Anneline Cremer
Anneline Cremer x x
Cléo Croonen
Francois D'Heygere x
Steven De Coninck
Elisabeth De Greef x
Marc De Maeyer
Marc De Reuck
Elodie De Ruyck
Nicolas de Suray
Martine De Vos x x x x
Benedicte De Vroey
Astrid De Zutter
Stefan Delen
Marie-Armelle Denis
Pieter Dewint x x
Olivier Dewit x x x
Sophie Dewit x x
Joris Dutre
Anke Engelen
Marc Etienne
Marc Ferrante x x x x x
René Fiasse
Fernand Fontaine x x
Denis Franchimont x x x x x x
Silke François
Jeroen Geldof
Bruno Hauser
Pieter Hindryckx x
Ilse Hoffman
Tom Holvoet
Alice Hoyois
Evelien Humblet x
Saskia Ilegems
Aranzazu Jauregui Amezaga
Guy Lambrecht x x x
Pierre Lammens
Katrien Lecluyse
Claire Liefferinckx x
Triana Lobaton
Edouard Louis x x x x x
Elisabeth Macken x
Marie-Christine Mairlot
Jean-Marc Maisin
Fazia Mana x
Ludwig Marchal
Walter Margos
Fady Mokaddem
Kim Moubax
Vinciane Muls
Carmen Musala
Michele Ngassa
Maja Noman
Hanne Ooms
An Outtier
Romy Ouziel
Harald Peeters
Annelies Posen
Philippe Potvin
Lieven Pouillon
Jean-Francois Rahier x x x x x x
Catherine Reenaers x x x
João Sabino
João Sabino
Michael Schapira
Nathalie Schoofs
Nele Schoofs
Alexandra Sermeus
Francoise Smets
Michaël Somers
Dirk Staessen
Marjan Steppe
Beatrijs Strubbe x
Jo Swinnen
Clara Thienpont
Marie Truyens
Haydeh Vafa
Stephanie Van Biervliet
Frank Van De Mierop
Gaëtan Van Den Steen
Jurgen Van Dongen
Evi Van Dyck
Andre Van Gossum
Karen Van Hoeve
Philippe Van Hootegem x x
Catherine Van Kemseke
Wouter Van Moerkercke x x x
Steven Van Outryve
Stijn Vanden Branden x x x x
Sofie Vanderhasselt
Liv Vandermeulen
Jo Vandervoort
Gigi Veereman x
Severine Vermeire x x x
Annelies Verreth
Bram Verstockt
Sophie Vieujean
Francis Weyn
Barbara Willandt